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Main article: Media coverage of the Gulf War. The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject.
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Further information: List of Gulf War military equipment. Different sources may call the conflicts by different names.
The name ' Persian Gulf ' is itself a subject of dispute. This dating is also used to distinguish it from the other two 'Gulf Wars'.
The war has also earned the nickname Video Game War after the daily broadcast of images from cameras on board US bombers during Operation Desert Storm.
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Archived from the original on 27 June Retrieved 1 August Duke Magazine. The concept was based on an operation whereby helicopters and C aircraft, following different routes, would rendezvous on a salt flat code-named Desert One miles km southeast of Tehran.
Here the helicopters would refuel from the Cs and pick up the combat troops who were had flown in on the C transports. The helicopters would then transport the troops to a mountain location Desert Two closer to Tehran from which the actual rescue raid would be launched into the city the following night.
On 31 March, anticipating the need for military action, a U. Carney Jr. Carney successfully surveyed the airstrip, installed remotely operated infrared lights and a strobe to outline a landing pattern for the pilots.
At the time of the survey, the salt-flat floor was hard-packed sand, but in the ensuing three weeks an ankle-deep layer of powdery sand had been deposited by sandstorms.
Army Special Forces officer Richard J. Meadows , had two assignments: to obtain information about the hostages and the embassy grounds [Note 3] and to transport the rescue team from Desert Two to the embassy grounds in pre-staged vehicles.
The ground forces consisted of 93 Delta soldiers to assault the embassy and a man special forces assault team from Detachment "A" Berlin Brigade to assault the Ministry of Foreign Affairs where three further hostages were being held.
A third group of 12 Rangers were to act as the roadblock team at the Desert One landing area. Rangers were also tasked with taking and holding the Manzariyeh Air Base near Tehran to provide the springboard for escape from Iran.
In addition, the CIA had prepared an in-country team of 15 Iranian and American Persian -speakers, most of whom would act as truck drivers.
They would be refuelled by Air Force KC tankers en route. Desert One would be secured by a protection force and once secured, a refueling area would be established for the helicopters with approximately 6, US gallons 22, L of jet fuel being made available from collapsible fuel bladders carried in the Cs.
Because it would be close to morning, the helicopters and ground forces would hide during the day at Desert Two.
The rescue operation would take place the second night. This assault team would assault the embassy and Foreign Affairs building, eliminate the guards, and rescue the hostages, with air support from Air Force AC gunships flying from Desert One.
The hostages and rescue team would then rendezvous with the helicopters which had flown from Desert Two to the nearby Amjadieh Stadium where the rescue teams and the freed hostages would board the helicopters.
With the Rangers holding the airport, the helicopters would bring everyone from the stadium to the Manzariyeh airbase, where the Cs would fly everyone back to an airbase in Egypt.
The eight helicopters would be destroyed before departure. For this operation, the aircraft bore special invasion stripe identification on their right wings.
This was necessary to distinguish support aircraft from Iranian F and F-4 aircraft purchased by from the US in the time of the Shah.
Only the delivery of the soldiers, equipment and fuel by the C aircraft went according to plan.
The landing was made under blacked-out conditions using the improvised infrared landing light system installed by Carney on the airstrip, visible only through night vision goggles.
The heavily loaded Dragon 1 required four passes to determine that there were no obstructions on the airstrip [Note 4] and to align with the runway.
The second and third MCs landed using both runways and discharged the remainder of the Delta soldiers, after which Dragon 1 and 2 took off at to make room for the three ECs and the eight RHDs.
Dragon 1 and 2 were to return to base to allow the crews to prepare for the second-night operations. Soon after the first crews landed and began securing Desert One , a civilian Iranian bus with a driver and 43 passengers was stopped while traveling on the road, which now served as the runway for the aircraft.
The bus was forced to halt by the Rangers and the passengers were detained aboard Republic 3. The truck's passenger was killed, but the driver managed to escape in an accompanying pickup truck.
As the tanker truck was thought to be engaged in clandestine smuggling, the driver was not considered to pose a security threat to the mission.
While en route, RHDs Bluebeard 6 made an emergency landing in the desert, when a sensor indicated a cracked rotor blade.
Its crew was picked up by Bluebeard 8. The remaining helicopters ran into an unexpected weather phenomenon known as a haboob  an enormous, nearly opaque cloud of fine dust.
Bluebeard 5 flew into the haboob, but abandoned the mission and returned to the Nimitz when electrical problems disabled flight instruments and flying without visual references proved impossible.
The remaining six helicopters reached Desert One , 50 to 90 minutes behind schedule. Bluebeard 2 arrived last at Desert One at with a malfunctioning secondary hydraulic system, leaving only one hydraulic system to control the aircraft.
With only five fully serviceable helicopters now remaining to transport the men and equipment to Desert Two minimum of six aircraft was the planned mission's abort threshold , the various commanders reached a stalemate.
Senior helicopter pilot Seiffert refused to use unsafe Bluebeard 2 on the mission, while Beckwith field commander for ground forces refused to consider reducing his trained rescue team's size.
Kyle the field aviation commander , therefore, recommended to Vaught that the mission be aborted. The recommendation was passed on by satellite radio up to the President.
After two and a half hours on the ground, the presidential abort confirmation was received. Fuel consumption calculations showed that the extra 90 minutes idling on the ground waiting for the abort confirmation order had made fuel critical for one of the ECs.
When it became clear that only six helicopters would arrive at Desert One , Kyle had authorized the ECs to transfer 1, US gallons 3, L from the bladders to their own main fuel tanks, but Republic 4 had already expended all of its bladder fuel refueling three of the helicopters and had none to transfer.
To make it to the air tanker refueling track without running out of fuel, it had to leave immediately and was already loaded with part of the Delta team.
In addition, RH Bluebeard 4 needed additional fuel, requiring it to be moved to the opposite side of the road. To accomplish both actions, Bluebeard 3 piloted by Maj.
James Schaefer  had to be moved from directly behind the EC The aircraft could not be moved by ground taxi and had to be moved by hover taxi flying a short distance at low speed and altitude.
As the Controller attempted to back away, Bluebeard 3 's pilot perceived he was drifting backward engulfed in a dust cloud, the pilot only had the Controller as a point of reference and thus attempted to "correct" this situation by applying forward stick to maintain the same distance from the rearward moving marshaller.
In the ensuing explosion and fire, eight servicemen died: five of the fourteen USAF aircrew in the EC, and three of the five USMC aircrew in the RH, with only the helicopter's pilot and co-pilot both badly burned surviving.
The helicopter crews boarded the ECs. Five RH aircraft were left behind mostly intact, some damaged by shrapnel.
They could not be destroyed, because they were loaded with ammunition and any fire or explosion would have endangered the Cs. The ECs carried the remaining forces back to the intermediate airfield at Masirah Island, where two C medical evacuation aircraft from the staging base at Wadi Abu Shihat, Egypt [Note 8] picked up the injured personnel, helicopter crews, Rangers and Delta Force members, and returned to Wadi Kena.
The American bodies were later returned to the United States and buried at various locations across the country. The eight servicemen who died included three Marines Sgt.
John D. Live TV. This Day In History. History at Home. General Norman Schwarzkopf was the hot-tempered commander tasked with driving Hussein out of Kuwait.
The desert terrain is tough, the enemy is ruthless and White House orders are impossible. In , the inspection team went to a site. The Iraqis said, "You can't come in — you can come in.
Come on in. Bill Clinton said, "This proves the Iraqis are not cooperating," and he ordered the inspectors out. But you know the United States government ordered the inspectors to withdraw from the modalities without conferring with the Security Council.
It took Iraqis by surprise. Saddam didn't kick them out. However, in his book Endgame Ritter explained that he was the one who had originally pushed for the fateful inspection of the Ba'ath party headquarters over the doubts of his boss Richard Butler and also planned to use 37 inspectors.
It was temporarily cancelled due to the fact that Iraq broke off cooperation in August Security Council, called for action against Iraq and stated falsely that "Saddam Hussein forced out the last inspectors in ".
Ambassador Peter Burleigh, acting on instructions from Washington, who suggested Butler pull his team from Iraq in order to protect them from the forthcoming U.
Burleigh informed me that on instructions from Washington it would be "prudent to take measures to ensure the safety and security of UNSCOM staff presently in Iraq.
I told him that I would act on this advice and remove my staff from Iraq. Former U. Army intelligence analyst William Arkin contended in his Washington Post column January that the operation had less to do with WMD and more to do with destabilizing the Iraqi government.
It is clear from the target list, and from extensive communications with almost a dozen officers and analysts knowledgeable about Desert Fox planning, that the U.
The official rationale for Desert Fox may remain the "degrading" of Iraq's ability to produce weapons of mass destruction and the "diminishing" of the Iraqi threat to its neighbours.
But careful study of the target list tells another story. Thirty-five of the targets were selected because of their role in Iraq's air defense system, an essential first step in any air war, because damage to those sites paves the way for other forces and minimizes casualties all around.
Only 13 targets on the list are facilities associated with chemical and biological weapons or ballistic missiles, and three are southern Republican Guard bases that might be involved in a repeat invasion of Kuwait.
The heart of the Desert Fox list 49 of the targets is the Iraqi regime itself: a half-dozen palace strongholds and their supporting cast of secret police, guard and transport organizations.
Brian Jones was the top intelligence analyst on chemical, biological and nuclear weapons at the Ministry of Defence.
Jones' testimony is supported by the former Deputy Chief of Defence Intelligence, John Morrison , who informed the same program that, before the operation had ended, DIS came under pressure to validate a prepared statement to be delivered by then Prime Minister Tony Blair , declaring military activity an unqualified success.
Large-scale damage assessment takes time, responded Morrison, therefore his department declined to sign up to a premature statement.
Later on, after careful assessment and consideration, Defence Intelligence Staff determined that the bombing had not been all that effective.
Within days of speaking out on the program, Morrison was informed by former New Labour cabinet minister Ann Taylor that he was to lose his job as Chief Investigator to the Intelligence and Security Committee.
The Duelfer Report concluded in that Iraq's WMD capability "was essentially destroyed in " following the end of sanctions. Some critics of the Clinton administration, including Republican members of Congress,  expressed concern over the timing of Operation Desert Fox.
House of Representatives was conducting the impeachment hearing of President Clinton.